Citrus response to irrigation water deficits have demonstrated that sensitivity of yield to water stress is dependent on the phenological phase in which water stress was applied. Adequate water supply is of major importance during citrus flowering and fruit set. A second critical period coincides with the period when fruit growth is rapid (fruit set to harvest). Depending on the level of water stress developed, the abscission of flowers and young fruits will be affected in the first case, as will fruit size in the second case.
For navels and mandarins it is possible to identify these critical periods in the crop and possibly allow stress when the trees are not in those critical periods. Some varieties though are complicated by having overlap of critical periods when another crop is present at the same time. Valencias can have two crops on the tree at the same time in spring and into summer harvest and coastal lemons can have fruit in all stages from fruit set to mature fruit at all times of the year. In the case of navels, reductions of applied water by 25% or more have resulted in no fruit yield reductions, if those water reductions do not occur during critical periods (Goldhamer, 2006; Domingo, 1996; Hutton et al, 2007). Water reductions during the rapid expansion period can result in significant fruit size reduction, though, and this period should be avoided if fruit size is critical to marketing (Goldhamer, 2006; Hutton et al, 2007).
In the case of coastal lemons, the stress should be avoided when the period of the most profitable crop is in rapid expansion, this is normally the summer crop. Each grower would need to identify, when the most profitable fruit size is important. Growers in areas that have more summer heat than the coast might practice a ‘Verdelli' irrigation practice, where water is withheld for a period of time, in order to force flowering that can often result in more summer fruit being harvested the following year (Maranto and Hake, 1985).
Domingo, R., Ruiz-Sanchez, M.C., Sanchez-Blanco, M. J. and Torrecillas. A.1996. Water Relations, growth and yield of ‘Fino' lemon trees under regulated deficit irrigation. Irrig. Sci.16: 115-123 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02215619#page-1
Goldhamer, D. and N. O'Connell. 2006. Using Regulated Deficit Irrigation to Optimize Fruit Size in Late Harvest Navels. Citrus Research Board. http://citrusresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2006-GOLDHAMER1.pdf
Hutton RJ, Landsberg JJ, Sutton BG. 2007. Timing irrigation to suit citrus phenology: a means of reducing water use without compromising fruit yield and quality. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture (47): 71–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA05233
Maranto, J. and K. Hake. 1985. Verdelli summer lemons: a new option for California growers. California Agriculture 39(5): 4. https://ucanr.edu/repositoryfiles/ca3905p4-62870.pdf
Phenological stages of navel orange.
navel phenological stages
The CASI team includes a diverse group of UC Cooperative Extension Advisors, Gene Miyao of Yolo, Sacramento, and Solano Counties, Brenna Aegerter and Michelle Leinfelder-Miles of San Joaquin County, and Cropping Systems Specialist, Jeff Mitchell of UC Davis, along with private sector partners, Dan Schueler of Senninger Irrigation Company, Rick Hanshew of Reinke Mfg., and Jerry Rossiter of CiscoAg. Several of these supporters of Boparai's goal of successfully producing tomatoes under his pivot this year have already met out in the field on a number of occasions to help him to assess progress of the crop and to develop water and crop management strategies for completing the 2015 season ahead of his harvest.
Because of the importance of tomatoes to many crop rotations throughout much of the Central Valley, being able to use pivot irrigation for this “anchor” crop is seen as being very important to the wider expansion of overhead irrigation systems in the region.
Additional updates and a summary of the learning that has taken place through this team effort with Boparai will be available in September.
Recently I was asked why an irrigation schedule could be projected for almond and citrus in the Central Valley (Almonds:http://cekern.ucanr.edu/Irrigation_Management/Almond_Drip_-_Microsprinkler_-
_Flood_Weekly_ET/Citrus: http://cekern.ucanr.edu/Irrigation_Management/Citrus_ET_by_age/ ) and why the same couldn't be done for the main avocado growing areas. Here was my response:
Generating a generic irrigation schedule for avocados along the coast is very difficult and if done would be terribly misleading. Scheduling gets really hairy along the coast where avocados are grown. As you get further from the coast the water demand (ETo) increases in many months, typically increasing in the summer. This can be most pronounced in the late winter/spring when the fog along the coast really causes a contrast between coastal and inland conditions. May in Ventura, the sun comes out for about 2 hours and in Fillmore 20 miles inland it may be 90 F at 4 PM. The fog is a major determinant for irrigation demand and it varies daily, monthly and year to year from Monterey to San Diego. So fog can throw off an irrigation schedule.
The next variable to area-wide scheduling is the topography where avocados are grown, usually slopes to improve air and water drainage. Depending on the aspect and slope position, the ETo can vary tremendously depending on the sky conditions and what those conditions are depending on the time of day (such as foggy in the morning and clear in the afternoon). So west and south facing will always be higher than north and east. The top of the slope that intercepts more wind than the bottom and will have higher ETo than the bottom of the slope. And if the trees intercept more evaporative conditions midday when the sun comes out, it will be much higher than the east side in the morning when fog is dripping off the trees (zero evaporative demand). Then as you go south from Monterey to San Diego the ETo goes up, just because of latitude and sun interception. These conditions are very different from Fresno where ETo in July is 0.6 inches per day and is the same until Sept, the sky is clear most days and trees are grown on fairly flat ground.
Now throw in rainfall. Almonds are deciduous and only count on the value of rainfall as that which is stored in the rooting zone going into spring when leaves are come out. Avocados rely on winter rain for transpiration and salt leaching. In a good year a significant portion of the total yearly ETcrop can be subtracted from the irrigation demand. In a low/no rainfall year that all needs to be made up by supplemental irrigation.
An almond grower in the Valley might be able to go onto a calendar, set the clock if they have water on demand and walk away. That's never going to happen in a coastal avocado orchard. Depending on where the avocado is grown and the ETo at that site, applied water might vary from 1.5 ac-ft per acre to 3.5. This will depend on rainfall (when and how much), water quality (which determines leaching requirement) and the system delivery (system efficiency). This system issue can be further complicated by whether the delivery is on-demand or whether a certain amount will be delivered at a certain date for a certain length of time - 24 hours or 48. This makes it difficult for the grower to put on exactly what ETo and other issues the trees would demand. In this case, the delivery system determines the schedule.
So this is why there's no chart showing ET demand for coastal avocados where the bulk are grown in California.
A CIMIS (CA Irrigation Management Information System) DWR weather station for calculating crop water requirement.
Just got the following announcement today.
For the inaugural Do No Harm workshop: Considerations of pathogens, pests, and plant disease in restoration activities at the UC Palm Desert Campus.
Check out: http://donoharm.ucdavis.edu/ - registration is open! Discounted student registration is available.
We invite restoration practitioners, native plant nurseries, researchers and agencies to learn how to identify and address issues of unintentional pests, pathogens and disease spread through ecological restoration activities.
In addition to presentations and networking opportunities, this one-day workshop will host a poster session. We invite poster submissions focus on a restoration and pathogen/pest theme.
Sponsorship opportunities are available – for more information, check out the website or contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
We look forward to seeing you in Palm Desert in November!
Elise Gornish & Travis Bean
"And they're not, for the most part, affected by the disease, but they can be carriers of it," Pitesky said. "It means we're euthanizing those flocks that are affected."
The story said 40 million laying hens, one-eighth of the country's laying population, had to be euthanized, dramatically reducing the egg supply. Turkeys are still more susceptible to the condition.
“Turkey prices are going up also, and we're still not sure how that will affect turkey prices around Thanksgiving," Pitesky said.
California chickens haven't been hit by bird flu, but they are producing fewer eggs because new laws went into effect this year requiring more room for hens to move around, reducing some farms' capacity.