Harter, a UC ANR specialist based at UC Davis, and co-author Laurel Firestone, shared their thoughts in an op-ed penned for The Guardian. Firestone is co-executive director of the Community Water Center in California, which helps disadvantaged communities gain access to clean, affordable water.
The authors wrote that state records with information needed to characterize groundwater aquifers are kept confidential under a 64-year-old law that considers them proprietary to well drillers. The well logs contain data that is public in every other state in the West and include details such as where wells are located, their depth, potential pumping rates, diameter and descriptions of the sediments and rocks the wells go through.
"The lack of information is a major impediment to stewardship of the resource," the op-ed says.
California State Senator Fran Pavley introduced Senate Bill 20 in December, which if passed will make well log data publicly available in California.
"Perhaps as more community and farm wells dry up this summer, the legislature will extend its enthusiasm for transparency to the critical information needed for more equitable and sustainable management of our groundwater," Garter and Firestone conclude.
I was just speaking to a group of Certified Crop Advisors and there was some confusion about the units used by different labs to report their results, so I put together this sheet to help understand the relationship between the different terms. They are usually interchangeable, but one needs to know how they convert between each other. So here is a cheat sheet.
Common ions in water: calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na1+)
sulfate (SO42-), chloride (Cl-), carbonate (CO32-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), boron (H3BO3)
Measured as parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per liter (mg/l), which are interchangeable , or milliequivalents per liter (meq/l). A milliequivalent is the ppm of that ion divided by its atomic weight per charge.
Example: Ca2+ with atomic weight of 40 and a solution concentration of possibly 200 ppm. Ca2+ has two charges per atom, so it has a weight of 20 per charge. 200 ppm divided by 20 = 10 meq of calcium for a liter of water.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): measure of total salts in solution in ppm or mg/L
Electrical Conductivity (EC): similar to TDS but analyzed differently.
Units: deciSiemens/meter(dS/m)=millimhos/centimeter (mmhos/cm)=
1000 micromhos/cm (umhos/cm).
ConversionTDSEC: 640 ppm=1 dS/m= 1 mmhos/cm=1000 umhos/cm
Hardness: measure of calcium and magnesium in water expressed as ppm CaCO3
pH: measure of how acid or base the solution
Alkalinity: measure of the amount of carbonate and bicarbonate controlling the pH, expressed as ppm CaCO3.
Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR): describes the relative sodium hazard of water
SAR= (Na)/((Ca+Mg)/2)1/2, all units in meq/l
1.5 feet of water with EC of 1.6 adds 10,000 # of salt per acre
and that same water with 20 mg/l of nutrient will supply 80# of that nutrient/acre
Sea water has ~ 50 dS/m, 20,000 ppm Cl, 10,000 ppm
Irrigation water WATCH OUT- 1,000 ppm TDS, 100 ppm Na/Cl, 1 ppm B
toGrowing blueberries in a pot is not such a whacky idea. Along the coast, they never get as big as the Central Valley or other places where they are grown. That's because they are in almost continuous flower and fruit production. So when they are small, the pots can be put more closely together, reducing water use and weeds. As the plants grow, the spacing can be increased. Also, blueberries are very sensitive to high soil pH which is easier to correct with artificial substrates. They are also prone to Phytophthora root rot, the pesticide for which can't be used by organic growers, but can be controlled by careful irrigation of a pot. So the easier control of weeds and the easier control of root rot would be worth it to an organic grower, even though the initial expenses are higher. Better control typically lead to higher yields. Being able to control plant spacing might also make them less prone to frost damage because they could more easily be covered up when frost is forecast.
blueberries in pots 2
Along the mighty Santa Clara River are planted many lemons and once upon a time many Valencia orange trees. There's lots of wild life along the river which causes some issues with food safety. One of the many creatures are rats and when things dry up they start foraging further and further for food. They really like citrus and can cause a lot of damage. What I first thought was sun burn damage turned out to be rat feeding on the bark and cambium of these lemon trees. The damage wasn't in the right position to be sunburn damage. Inside the canopy, often on the north facing branch.
The California Department of Pesticide Regulation's Pesticide Registration Branch is recruiting for an Environmental Scientist position. Working in the discipline of Plant Physiology and under the supervision of an Environmental Program Manager I (Supervisory) and lead of the Senior Environmental Scientist (Specialist), you will apply scientific methods and principles to identify environmental problems, evaluate data submissions, propose mitigating courses of action, and conduct scientific investigations on issues of major importance to the registration and use of pesticide products in the State. Main duties include analysis and evaluation of scientific data on the efficacy, and phytotoxicity of pesticide products, including herbicides, plant growth regulators, and spray adjuvants, as well as other aspects of the environment, as a part of a complex and environmentally sensitive statewide pesticide registration program, which protects the State's natural resources and public health.
In order to be eligible for hire, the candidate must take and pass the State of California Environmental Scientist open exam, which is now online at https://jobs.ca.gov/Bulletin/Bulletin/Index?examCD=4PB09.
You can find the position and application DETAILS HERE.