Posts Tagged: citrus
SACRAMENTO — A portion of Los Angeles County has been placed under quarantine for the Oriental fruit fly following the detection of nine flies in the Hollywood area. The quarantine zone measures 75 square miles. A link to the quarantine map may be found here:https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/off/regulation.html
“California's fruit fly season extends from late summer through the fall,” said California Agriculture Secretary Karen Ross. “These pests like Southern California for some of the same reasons other travelers do: the pleasant climate and the tremendous variety of food. Fortunately, with the help of local residents, we have a great track record of eradicating these infestations.”
To prevent the spread of fruit flies through homegrown fruits and vegetables, residents living in the fruit fly quarantine area are urged to not move any fruits or vegetables from their property. Produce may be consumed or processed (i.e. juiced, frozen, cooked, or ground in the garbage disposal) at the property where it was picked.
The most common pathway for these pests to enter the state is by “hitchhiking” in fruits and vegetables brought back illegally by travelers as they return from infested regions around the world or from packages sent to California. To help prevent infestations statewide, officials asks residents to refrain from bringing or mailing fresh fruit, vegetables, plants, and soil into California unless agricultural inspectors have cleared the shipment beforehand.
While fruit flies and other invasive species threaten California's crops, the vast majority of them are detected in urban and suburban areas.
“That's why it's important for residents to cooperate with quarantine restrictions and allow authorized agricultural workers access to properties to inspect fruit and oriental fruit fly traps for signs of an infestation,” said Secretary Ross.
Following the principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) uses a “male attractant” technique in its eradication effort for this pest. This approach, which has successfully eliminated dozens of fruit fly infestations in California, significantly reduces the amount of insecticide required to eradicate the population, and only targets the fruit flies – no other insects or animals are harmed. The treatment program is being carried out over several square miles surrounding the sites where the oriental fruit flies were trapped.
The oriental fruit fly is known to target more than 230 different fruits, vegetables, and plants. Damage occurs when the female fruit fly lays her eggs inside the fruit. The eggs hatch into maggots and tunnel through the flesh of the fruit, making it unfit for consumption.
The oriental fruit fly is widespread throughout much of the mainland of Southern Asia and neighboring islands including Sri Lanka and Taiwan, and has invaded other areas, most notably Africa and Hawaii.
Residents with questions about the quarantine may call the CDFA Pest Hotline at 1-800-491-1899.
—California Department of Food and Agriculture
Photos: OFF adults and Grapefruit infested with larvae of oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis.
This is a post from BBC:
From fashion to energy - the rind and seeds of Sicily's most famous citrus fruit, the humble orange, are being used in a range of greener, healthier business initiatives.
In 2011, Adriana Santonocito was a design student in Milan when she first had the idea of making sustainable textiles from what was naturally abundant, and widely wasted, in her native Sicilian city of Catania.
Her challenge was to find a way for the rinds of hundreds of thousands of tonnes of oranges to be put to good use.
Now, thanks to her creative thinking, it is possible to make whole items of clothing using fibre that originated from the fruit.
Ms Santonocito's concept was inspired by a question posed in her university dissertation. Could a luxurious silk foulard be made from citrus by-products, that would otherwise be thrown away or fed to cattle? Fiber uses chemical reagents to separate the cellulose from the orange remains
The question was particularly relevant in Sicily, where many thousands of tonnes of citrus fruit are juiced every year, leaving massive amounts of waste.
The 39-year-old found her answer in the university's labs, and it earned her a patent.
It was already known that cellulose could be extracted from orange rinds. But Ms Santonocito discovered that, using chemical reagents, it could then be turned into yarn, which could be dyed and blended with other textiles, such as cotton or polyester.
Together with her university colleague Enrica Arena, she founded Orange Fiber in 2014, and set about selling the silk-like material to clothes-makers. head up a 12-strong team
This year, the famous Italian fashion label Salvatore Ferragamo used it in its spring-summer collection. The aim was to make its high-end shirts, dresses and foulards more sustainable.
Orange Fiber, which now has a team of 12 people, operates from a local juice-processing plant, where it gets its waste material for free.
The business is partially seasonal, operating during the months of the year when the juice-maker works. But once the orange rind has been transformed into cellulose, it can be put in storage for use later.
Antonio Perdichizzi, an early investor in Orange Fiber, says the firm stood out to him because, unlike most innovative start-ups in Italy, it isn't digital.
Fiber uses the rinds of juiced oranges
"Italy doesn't invest much in innovation, but brilliant ideas and skills win despite a lack of resources," he adds.
Rosario Faraci, a professor of business, economics and management at the University of Catania, says the firm is an example of how "creativity and entrepreneurial spirit" is creating new jobs and businesses in the region.
Fibre - not fat
Oranges could also make baked goods healthier, and stay fresher, thanks to a new procedure which transforms them into an innovative fat-free flour.
The new technique is currently being tested at the University of Catania and results are encouraging.
At the moment, almost all bakers use fat, such as butter or margarine in their cooking.
But according to the research, half of this fat could be replaced by using flour obtained from orange rinds, seeds, and part of the pulp not used in juice-making. near Catania, liked the new flour
Like Orange Fiber, the researchers obtain the raw materials they need from local juice makers. They wash the rinds to remove the bitter flavour, then dry, process and whiten what remains.
Salvatore Barbagallo, a professor of agriculture at the University of Catania, says the flour is "perfectly sustainable" and costs almost nothing to produce. It also has "no impact" on the taste and fragrance of food that contains it.
His researchers made 300kg of the flour and got local bakers in Acireale, near Catania, to try it out.
The cooks, known for being conservative about new ingredients, were all happy with the results and could taste no difference in their pastries. The new flour is soluble
The researchers say they have found other uses for the flour, too.
It is soluble and can be added to drinks to provide health benefits. It could also be used by nutritionists and in medicine.
Sicilian farmers have always used orange rinds as animal feed or fertiliser. But oranges can be a precious source of energy as well.
In Mussomeli, an ancient town near Caltanissetta in the middle of Sicily, orange waste products are used to make biogas which is turned into electricity.
The farm Nuova Scala used about 16,430 tonnes of rinds last year to produce 24,000 kWh of electricity.
Output varies depending on the amount of oranges produced, and the firm expects to get through 22,000 tonnes of orange waste in 2017.Disposing of oranges after they have been juiced can be expensive
Of course, all of these projects depend on local fruit companies, which produce many thousands of tonnes of citrus by-products annually.
Salvatore Imbesi, who owns the producer AgrumiGel, says the rinds, seeds and other non-edible parts of the fruit are called "pastazzo", and he produces about 40,000 tonnes of it a year.
He says Sicily as a whole produces about 200,000 tonnes, although unofficial estimates suggest the real figure could be higher.
Producers have an incentive to re-use pastazzo, because disposal can be expensive. Mr Imbesi says that in Sicily the total cost of disposal can reach 16m euros every year, "six for the cost of the transport, and 10 for the disposal itself".
Some of Sicily's fruit is sold fresh, including its famous blood oranges, with the rest turned into juices.
In 2016, the amount juiced included some 140,000 tonnes of lemons, 100,000 tonnes of blonde oranges, 100,000 tonnes of blood oranges, 20,000 tonnes of green mandarins and 20,000 tonnes of matured mandarins.
Finally, thanks to the new crop of innovative solutions, the squeezed fruit are being turned from expensive waste into exciting products.
It really has gotten out of hand - Hairy Fleabane and Horseweed which are both Conyza weed species that have run rampant this year because of the extra rain. It's also because they have become resistant to glyphosate herbicide. The problem has shown up all over the US and other parts of the world. Gradually as resistance has grown and their resistant fairy seeds have floated wherever the winds go, the weed is having a field day everywhere in your backyard, in your orchard, in the sidewalk. It's not just abandoned areas, but in actively managed areas where Cal Trans is doing its best.
Citrus growers who have not used preemergents in years or never used them have turned to various cocktails to knock it out.
A good description of the biology and care of Conyza can be found at:
And we along with others have written about this problem in the past -
http://ucanr.edu/blogs/topics/index.cfm tagname=Conyza ,
But this year has been exceptional in the ubiquity of this plant. Something more than glyphosate is called for at this point. Glufosinate is a postemergent herbicide somewhat similar to glyphosate in name only and more expensive. It is a broadspectrum herbicide that is effective with thorough coverage on younger stages of conyza and other weeds. It will take some learning to get the best effect out of it. Citrus growers have been able to use it for several years now and have enjoyed its effectiveness. We are currently working on an IR-4 registration (http://ir4.rutgers.edu/) for avocados. It is currently not registered for use in avocado.
Mature avocados are pretty good about controlling any weeds in their own orchards through ground shading and self mulching, but conyza has become a problem in young orchards. And this new herbicide could help.
What a great find and it was there all along, just like a used book store can be a gold mine at times.
This is the section of Subtropical Fruit Pests by Walter Ebeling that covers avocado pests in not only California, but what was and is known to exist in other avocado growing regions around the US and the world. It was reproduced at the Hoshi Foundation's Avocadosource website. At this point it only contains the chapters pertaining to avocado. Other chapters in the full text cover citrus, grape, walnut, almond pecan, olive, fig, date and other "Minor Subtropical Fruits". The beauty of the book is not only historical, but that it is still current (although the DDT recommendations are out of date) for many pests. It also chronicles pests that have appeared in the past, disappeared and then reappeared. An example is Avocado Bud Mite - here, gone, here and seemingly gone again, probably to reappear sometime in the future. This is no replacement for the UC-IPM website, http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/crops-agriculture.html , but it is a good look at how the pest has been managed in the past and is done so currently.
I thought I had the only copy of this book in Ventura County, but you could too. There are some listed on ABE Books for cheap.
This pestiferous book was compiled by Walter Ebeling at UC Riverside/Los Angeles. He was of some note, considered the Father of Urban Entomology. As you can see from the descriptions of avocado pests, he was a good all round entomologist, as well. Urban entomology really forces you to know a lot because of the diversity of arthropods in urban settings. He passed in 2010 and was recognized world-wide for his work.
Professor Emeritus of Entomology
November 26, 1907 – December 17, 2010
Walter Ebeling, world-renowned entomologist and pioneer in the field of Urban Entomology, died 17 December 2010 in a care facility in Bandon, Oregon at the age of 103. "Professor Ebeling was a legendary research entomologist," said Dr. Michael Rust, Professor of Entomology at the University of California, Riverside, who replaced Dr. Ebeling upon his retirement in 1975. "He had tremendous abilities, tireless energy, and a passion for science. He was an expert in so many fields of entomology including agriculture, physiology, and insect behavior. Dr. Ebeling helped develop Urban Entomology into a respected independent area of research."
Read more of his Memoriam: http://senate.ucr.edu/agenda/120221/IN%20MEMORIAM-Walter%20Ebeling.pdf