Posts Tagged: pests
The University of California Cooperative Extension conducted an Avocado Pest Management Round Table grower meeting in Fallbrook, CA on September 28, 2017. Approximately 64 growers, industry, Pest Control Advisors, and other stakeholders were present. Sonia Rios, Subtropical Horticulture Farm Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE), Riverside/San Diego Counties gave a talk on “Introduction to Avocado Weed Management.” Tim Spann from the California Avocado Commission (CAC) spoke on a potential threat to California's avocado industry, “A Review: Redbay Ambrosia Beetle & Laurel Wilt Disease.
Growers were able to participate in 2 round table discussions, one on “Old challenges/possible new solutions - pesticide resistance, proper spray application, new pesticides” and another on New Challenges in the Avocado industry. Round Table panel members were: Mary Lu Arpaia, University of California, Riverside/CE, Frank Byrne, University of California, Riverside/CE, Kevin Turner, CAL FIRE, Tim Spann, CAC, Enrico Ferro, Avocado Grower/PCA, Sonia Rios, UCCE, Victor Lopez, Crop Production Services.
The growers will be looking forward to the next Round Table meeting in the Spring. If you missed the meeting, below is a link to a recording of the meeting https://soundcloud.com/user-95194984/controlling-pests-in-avocado-roundtable-meeting
Recently a grower called up with a beautiful scale that the PCA couldn't identify. I could just marvel at the beauty of it and wondered what in the heck it was. It didn't look like any scale I had seen in the area and others who were queried didn't know either.
I took it into the Ag Commissioner's office and they sent it off to see if it was a new species. Images were sent off to various entomologists and David Haviland in Bakersfield identified it as a Ceroplastes, possibly a Chinese wax scale or Barnacle scale. Others had identified it as Florida wax scale.
It was sent into Paul Rugman-Jones at UC Riverside Entomology for DNA identification. His identification and that of CA Dept of Food and Ag entolomogists came back as Barnacle scale, Ceroplastes cirripediformis.
All of these scales turned out to have been seen in California before, so there was no quarantine issue. It also turned out that all of the adults that were turned in for identification had also been parasitized by some wasp. So there is biological control already in place for it. The issue at stake here, though, is that it's important to be watching for new visitors in the orchard. Joe Morse now retired from UC Riverside Entomology lead a team that intercepted avocados coming into the US. They found a number of scale insects that were new to California and new to the identification world. A number of these scale are parthenogenic, meaning they can reproduce without males, and just one lone female could possible balloon into a massive population in a short time. And on a scale like that, trees would have a hard time without some serious intervention.
Argentine Ant is a very aggressive invader that disrupts native ant populations and at the same time disrupts biocontrol agents that help control, such pests as scale, aphids and mealy bugs in citrus and other tree crop species. They defend these sugar producing sources of energy from attack by predators and parasites, like parasitic wasps and predatory assassin bugs and lady bugs. They increase the threat of Asian Citrus Psyllid and HLB by protecting the psyllid from attack by parasitic Tamarixia.
A careful, well placed chlorpyrifos spray has been used to control Argentine ants. A trunk spray and/or spray on irrigation lines has disrupted their activity with minimal impact on beneficials. This protectant spray keeps the Argentine ants out of the canopies and allows the beneficials access to the pests. Controlling this one species, can have significant impact on biocontrol and the whole need for controlling pests.
Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide that might lose registration and other materials and techniques have been examined over the years as a replacement. A recent procedure has been proposed and used successfully on Santa Cruz Island to control introduced Argentine ants. The ant has caused tremendous disruption in biocontrol and it appears to have been controlled by this new technique. We are in the process of evaluating it's use in citrus. The application technique, costs and materials would need to be modified for use in citrus orchards. The current procedure would not be considered an organic practice since the pesticide material is not registered organic. It might be possible to use an organically registered material in the future.
Protocols for Argentine ant eradication in conservation areas
L.Boser1,C.Hanna2,D.A.Holway3,K.R.Faulkner4,I.Naughton3,K.Merrill5,J.M.Randall1,C.Cory1,D.-H. Choe6 & S. A.Morrison
Journal of Applied Entomology
The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is a widespread, abundant and ecologically disruptive invader that is present throughout major portions of coastal California and on half of the California Channel Islands. On Santa Cruz Island, the Argentine ant had invaded about 2% of the island's area in four distinct locations as of 2012. Given the negative ecological effects resulting from Argentine ant invasions,we sought to develop a cost-effective method of eradication. Here, we describe the results of large-scale, field-tested methods for Argentine ant eradication and post-treatment detection. Our eradication protocol employs a novel toxicant-delivery system: an aqueous solution of sucrose and 6 ppm of thiamethoxam mixed with hydrating polyacrylamide beads. Ants feed on the solution present on the bead's surface for about 24h after which time bead dehydration prevents feeding. We distributed hydrated beads by helicopter over 74 ha of infested areas plus a 50-m buffer on 14 occasions between June 2013 and September 2014. Treatments reduced Argentine ant activity to subdetectable levels within four months. In 2014, we conducted a high-intensity detection protocol using lures (n = 55 363) in areas treated in 2013.This effort did not detect Argentine ants. In 2015, we conducted a medium-intensity detection protocol using lures (n=2250) in areas treated in 2013 and 2014 but not searched in 2014; this sampling effort did not detect Argentine ant activity except for a single remnant infestation (c.0.3ha in area),which was retreated in2015.Thec ost of treatments was approximately $1400 per ha; this cost is comparable to other ant eradication efforts. The cost of our preferred detection method, which used lures spaced every 10m,was $500 per ha.These results demonstrate sufficient protocol efficacy to justify expansion of treatments to other infested areas in ecologically sensitive areas.
Photo: Argentine ant and scale
The Orange County Master Gardeners have lived up to their name with their website information on citrus. It's a truly impressive information site for not only homeowners, but also growers:
The “Citrus Problem Diagnosis Chart” is especially work perusing:
The proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Huanglongbing (IRCHLB V) is now published, available and citable online through the Journal of Citrus Pathology: http://escholarship.org/uc/iocv_journalcitruspathology
Joseph (Josy) M. Bové - Selected Photos
Joseph (Josy) M. Bové Dedication
Tribute to Prof. Dr. Joseph Bové
If you download the Bové Dedication pdf file, there is a link near the top of page 3 that will redirect you to the video interview of Prof. Bové. This is the video that we could not show during the meeting due to audiovisual technical difficulties. You must download the pdf for the link to be active. The link is not active when simply viewing the publication online.
The keynote speakers are working on their contributions. These will be available shortly and we will send another email announcement when they become available as well.
sIn the bottom left corner is the Search box for finding authors and topics of the abstracts.